Akabane Virus Infection in Ruminants

Akabane disease of cattle, sheep and goats is caused by infection with Akabane virus, a Bunyavirus. Reported from the Far..

Anthrax (Splenic fever, Siberian ulcer, Charbon, Milzbrand)

Anthrax is mainly a disease of sheep, horses, cattle, and other herbivorous animals. Historically, the disease in humans has been..


Babesiosis in Ruminants (Piroplasmosis, Texas fever, redwater, tick fever)

Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia . The disease, which is transmitted by ticks, affects..

Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (Red water disease)

Bacillary hemoglobinuria is an acute, infectious, toxemic disease caused by Clostridium haemolyticum ( C novyi type D). It affects primarily..

Bluetongue in Cattle, Sheep and Goats

(Sore muzzle, pseudo foot-and-mouth disease, muzzle disease) Description Bluetongue is an insect-spread disease of ruminants characterised by inflammation of mucous..

Bovine Ephemeral Fever

Ephemeral fever is a non-contagious disease of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (family RHABDOVIRIDAE, genus EPHEMEROVIRUSE). The virus..

Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis

Description Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a venereal disease of cattle characterized primarily by early embryonic death, infertility, a protracted calving..

Bovine Herpesvirus type 1

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and associated diseases Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis is caused by BOVINE HERPESVIRUS 1. Often..

Bovine Leukosis (Bovine lymphosarcoma, Leukemia, Malignant lymphoma)

Enzootic bovine leukosis is a viral disease of adult cattle characterized by neoplasia of lymphocytes and lymph nodes. The prevalence..

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease)

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive, fatal, neurologic disease of adult domestic cattle that resembles scrapie of sheep and..

Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Mucosal Disease Complex

Disease induced by BVDV varies in severity, duration, and organ systems involved. Acute disease results from infection of susceptible cattle..

Brucellosis in Cattle (Contagious abortion, Bang’s disease)

BRUCELLA ABORTUS is a major cause of abortion worldwide but has been controlled in most parts of the world. In..


Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

This highly contagious pneumonia is generally accompanied by pleurisy. It is present in Africa, the Iberian peninsula, and parts of..


East Coast Fever

East Coast fever, an acute disease of cattle, is characterized usually by high fever, swelling of the lymph nodes, dyspnea,..


Foot-and-Mouth disease in Ruminants

Bovine, gingiva. There is an elongate erosion (ruptured vesicle) ventral to the incisors. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious..

Footrot in Cattle (Interdigital phlegmon, Foul in the foot)

Description Signs of foot rot include swelling of the coronary band with spreading of the toes and/or necrosis of tissue..


Heartwater, Ehrlichia Ruminatium, in Ruminants

Heartwater is a major disease in Africa and the Carribean. Caused by EHRLICHIA RUMINANTIUM, an obligate-intracellular gram-negative bacterium spread by..


Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye, Infectious ophthalmia)

Description Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye) caused by MORAXELLA BOVIS is one of the most common bovine ocular diseases. Cattle are the..


Johnes Disease (Paratuberculosis) in Cattle

Clinical Signs. Affected cattle, sheep and goats develop progressive emaciation. Typical age of onset of obvious clinical signs: 2-7 yrs…


Leptospirosis in Cattle (Redwater of calves)

Description Leptospirosis is recognized worldwide as a cause of abortion, systemic illness, and mastitis. Signs can be mild or severe…

Lumpy Skin Disease (Pseudo-urticaria, Neethling virus disease, exanthema nodularis bovis, knopvelsiekte)

Description Acute pox viral disease of cattle manifested with sudden appearance of nodules on the skin. Lumpy skin disease is..


Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) (Snotsiekte – Africa, Malignant head catarrh, Catarrhal fever, Gangrenous coryza)

Description The African form of malignant catarrhal fever is due to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1. This virus is carried by wildebeest and..

Mucosal disease

is a highly fatal form of BVD that may be acute or chronic and is seen infrequently in persistently infected..



Description Neosporosis has been recognized in dogs, cattle, sheep, goats, deer, horses, and experimentally rodents, pigs, monkeys, and cats. It..


Pneumonic Pasteurellosis in Cattle

Description MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA are the most common bacteria found in bovine pneumonia; probably can be primary pathogens..

Pseudocowpox, Parapoxvirus, in Cattle (Milker’s nodes, Paravaccinia)

Description Pseudocowpox (SUE-doe-cowpox) is a viral skin disease that causesmild sores on the teats and udders of cattle. This virus..


Q Fever in Ruminants

Q fever is a zoonotic bacterial infection associated primarily with parturient ruminants, although domestic animals such as cats and a..



Description Rabies is a disease of mammals caused by a member of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdovirus family. Rabid..

Rift Valley Fever in Ruminants

A PHLEBOVIRUS of the familiy Bunyaviridae is the viral agent of Rift Valley Fever, an arthropod-borne viral disease seen in..

Rinderpest (RP), Peste Des Petits Ruminants

Rinderpest is an acute, highly contagious, fatal viral disease of cattle, buffalo and wild ruminants manifested by inflammation, haemorrhage, erosions..


Schmallenberg Virus

Schmallenberg Virus is a new emerging disease of livestock. It was named after the German town where it was first..

Shipping Fever Pneumonia

Shipping fever pneumonia is a respiratory disease of cattle of multifactorial etiology with Mannheimia haemolytica and, less commonly, Pasteurella multocida..


Tickborne Fever (Pasture fever) in Ruminants

Tickborne fever of ruminants is caused by ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM that invade neutrophils and monocytes. Transmitted by the tick IXODES RICINUS..


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium . Although commonly defined as..


Vesicular Stomatitis in Ruminants

Vesicular stomatitis is caused by Vesiculoviruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. Seen sporadically in North America during late summer and early..