Foot-and-Mouth disease in Ruminants

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Bovine, gingiva. There is an elongate erosion (ruptured vesicle) ventral to the incisors.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease is characterised by the formation of vesicles (fluid-filled blisters) and erosions in the mouth, nose, teats and feet. Although not very lethal in adult animals, it causes serious production losses and is a major constraint in international trade.

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Foot and Mouth: Underside of feet

Classification

OIE List A disease
Susceptible species
Cloven-hoofed animals (ungulates) are susceptible to FMD. Of the domestic species, cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep, goats and deer are susceptible. Horses are not affect

Where it occurs

The FMD situation has improved markedly in recent years particularly in Europe and some countries in south east Asia and South America. However, the disease remains endemic and at a high prevalence in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America.Europe, North and Central America, Pacific nations and the Caribbean were free of the disease. There has been a recent outbreak of FMD in Europe [ Britain, the Netherlands, France].

World distribution of FMD

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Additional information

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Foot and mouth disease

Nature of the disease

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is characterized by fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the muzzle, teats, and feet. In a susceptible population, morbidity approaches 100%. The disease is rarely fatal except in young animals. All species of deer and antelope, elephant, and giraffe are susceptible to FMD, but Old World camels are resistant to natural infection. South American camelids such as alpacas and llamas, although susceptible, are probably of no epidemiologic significance. Rats, mice, and guinea pigs can be infected experimentally. The disease is characterised by the formation of vesicles (fluid-filled blisters) and erosions in the mouth, nose, teats and feet. Although not very lethal in adult animals, it causes serious production losses and is a major constraint in international trade.